The “13th Five-year Plan” for power development (2016-2020)
The “13th Five-year Plan” for power development (2016-2020) covers hydropower, nuclear power, coal power, gas power, wind power, solar power, transmission and distribution networks. It focuses on the guiding concept and basic principle of China’s power development during the “13th Five-year Plan” and clarifies the main objectives and key tasks. It is the action program for the “13th Five-year Plan” for power development and the basis for preparing guidance documents for relevant special plans and making a layout for major power projects. The planning period is 2016-2020. During the implementation of the plan, rolling adjustment shall be carried out timely.
(I) Achievements: The development scale of electric power industry has reached a new level. During the “12th Five-year Plan”, the pace of China’s electric power construction was accelerated with many indicators ranking the first in the world. By the end of 2015, the power consumption of the whole society reached 5.69 trillion kWh, and the installed power generation capacity of the whole country reached 1.53 billion kilowatts, including 320 million kilowatts of hydropower (including 23 million kilowatts of pumped storage energy), 131 million kilowatts of wind power, 42 million kilowatts of solar power, 27 million kilowatts of nuclear power, 993 million kilowatts of thermal power (including 900 million kilowatts of coal power and 66 million kilowatts of gas power), 13 million kilowatts of biomass power. “West-to-East Power Transmission Project” reached 140 million kilowatts; the total length of the lines with 220 kV and above was 609,000 kilometers, and the transformation capacity was 3.37 billion kVA.
By the end of 2015, China’s per capita installed capacity was about 1.11 kilowatts, and the per capita power consumption was about 4,142kWh, both of which were higher than the world average level. Electric power accounted for 25.8% of the end-use energy consumption.
In North China, Central China, East China, Northeast China, Northwest China and South China, the grid networks at all levels have been continuously improved, power supply capacity, power supply quality and equipment level of the distribution network have been significantly improved, breakthroughs have been made in the intelligent construction, and the rural power consumption conditions have been significantly improved. This has comprehensively solved the problem of no electricity for people.
New achievements have been made in structural adjustment. During the “12th Five-year Plan”, the development of non-fossil power sources in China accelerated significantly. The scale of hydropower in China increased steadily, and more than 100 million kilowatts were additionally put into operation, accounting for 20.9% of the total installed capacity of power generation in China. The scale of wind power increased rapidly, accounting for 8.6% from 3.1% in 2010 and becoming the third largest power source in China. Photovoltaic power generation has achieved leapfrog development, witnessing an accumulated increase of about 42 million kilowatts. The scale of nuclear power in operation and installation ranked the fourth in the world. 30.54 million kilowatts were under construction, ranking the first in the world.
The structure of thermal power units continued to be optimized, and the proportions of supercritical and ultra supercritical units increased significantly, and the proportion of single units of 300,000 kilowatts and above rose to 78.6%. The proportion of single units of 600,000 kilowatts and above rose to 41%. The installed proportion of non-fossil energy increased from 27% in 2010 to 35% in 2015. The proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption increased from 9.4% in 2010 to 12% in 2015, exceeding the goal in the “12th Five-year Plan”.
Energy conservation and emission reduction reached a new level. We continued to promote the elimination of backward coal-fired units and the transformation and upgrading of energy conservation. Over 28 million kilowatts of small thermal power units were shut down, about 400 million kilowatts were under energy conservation transformation, and about 160 million kilowatts were under ultra-low emission transformation. The average coal consumption for power supply of thermal power units nationwide was reduced to 315g standard coal/kWh (including 318g standard coal/kWh for coal-fired power generation), reaching the world advanced level. The carbon dioxide emission intensity of coal-fired power units was reduced to about 890g/kWh. The total coal consumption for power supply was reduced by 18g standard coal/kWh in five years, saving more than 70 million tons of standard coal annually and reducing the emission of carbon dioxide by about 200 million tons.
Strict emission standard for air pollutants from coal-fired units was implemented. Environmental electrovalence policies such as desulfurization, denitrification, dust removal and ultra-low emission, and desulfurization was fully realized for existing units, and the denitrification rate was up to 92%. In 2015, the total emission of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and other major air pollutants in the power industry decreased by 4.25 million tons and 5.01 million tons respectively compared with that in 2010. The emission reduction of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide exceeded the goal in the “12th Five-year Plan”.
New breakthroughs were made in equipment technology innovation. The technology of coal-fired power generation kept innovating and reached the world leading level. Million kilowatt ultra supercritical units and ultra-low emission coal-fired power generation technology were widely used. 600,000 kilowatt, million kilowatt ultra supercritical secondary reheating units and the world’s first 600,000 kilowatt ultra supercritical CFB units were put into commercial operation. 250,000 kilowatt IGCC and 100,000-ton carbon dioxide capturing device demonstration project was completed, and the world’s first million kilowatt indirect air cooling unit was under construction.
Construction technology and equipment manufacturing level of hydropower projects were significantly improved. The world’s leading technologies such as 300m super high arch dam and deep buried long diversion tunnel group were conquered. The world’s highest concrete double-curvature arch dam (Jinping Class-I Hydropower Station), deep buried long tunnel (Jinping Class-II Hydropower Station) and the world’s third and Asia’s highest core-wall rockfill dam (Nuozhadu Hydropower Station) were successively constructed.
The gap between wind power, solar energy and other new energy power generation technologies and the international advanced level was significantly narrowed. A complete design system for large capacity wind turbine generators and a relatively complete technical system for wind power equipment manufacturing were formed in China. Important progress was made in the development and utilization of large-scale photovoltaic technologies. The industrial technology of crystalline silicon solar cells had strong international competitiveness, and the efficiency of bulk monocrystalline silicon cells was up to 9.5%, and the efficiency of polycrystalline silicon cells was up to 18.5%.
Nuclear power technology was at the world leading level. Introduction, digestion and absorption of the third-generation AP1000 technology were completed, forming self-owned brand CAP1400 and Hualong-1 third-generation pressurized water reactor technology. The construction of the fourth-generation high-temperature gas cooled reactor demonstration project was commenced, the experimental fast reactor was built, and it was successfully connected to the grid.
Technical equipments and safe operation level of power grid were at the world leading level. The world leading ultra-high voltage power transmission technology began to be applied, and ±1,100kV DC transmission project was commenced. The dispatching and operation capacity of large power grid was continuously improved, and the level of power supply safety and reliability was effectively improved. Breakthroughs were made in key technologies and a set of equipments such as new energy generation and grid disaster prevention and control, and the multi-terminal flexible DC transmission demonstration project was completed and put into operation.
A new situation was explored for electric power international cooperation. Cooperation in nuclear power, thermal power, hydropower, new energy power generation, power transmission and transformation was continuously strengthened, and investment forms were increasingly diverse. This drove Chinese standards, technologies, equipments and finance to go global. Electric power trade was carried out with 8 neighboring countries and regions, and power grids were invested in Brazil, Portugal and other countries.
System reform opened a new chapter. Several Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Further Deepening the Reform of the Electric Power System (ZF  No. 9) and relevant supporting documents were issued successively. The pilot work was carried out gradually, the price mechanism was gradually improved, the pilot reform of transmission and distribution electricity price was accelerated, the main market players were gradually cultivated, and new progress was made in the construction of electric power market.
Streamlining administration and delegating power were further promoted. 17 items of examination and approval of electric power were canceled and decentralized, normative documents were cleared up in an all-round way, a legitimacy review system was established, and a large number of electric power laws, regulations, industrial policies and industrial standards were promulgated or revised. Two large-scale energy construction groups (Power China and CEEC) were set up, and phased progress was made in the main-supplement separating project. The “escrow system” of the county-level power supply enterprises was basically canceled, and urban and rural power utilization basically share the same networks and prices.